After the catastrophic city fire of 1662, the Italian influence can be seen everywhere. It is particular evident in houses of the Old Town Passau. This is not surprising, as master builders and craftsman used to come regularly from Italy via Innsbruck, and took a boat on the Inn river to Passau.
The ridge of the mountain across the river promenade is already Austrian territory. I walked all the way down where the three rivers meet, Donau, Inn and Ilts
Unfortunately, with all those rivers, Passau has been inundated by floods regularly, and caused particular great damage to homes and historic buildings. The last big flood was in June, 2013!
On day two I went on a boat ride on the Inn river. Here at the gravel bank, hundreds of seagulls were sitting, The ship turned to allow the most beautiful view from the river to the city of Passau.
On the left is the Inn, the Dreiflusseck, the Old Town with the towering St. Stephan Cathedral. In the middle the Danube with the Niederhaus nunnery, on the mountain the Veste Oberhaus and on the right the llz with the llzstadt.
The boat took us on the Inn river a bit upstream. On the left side of the hill you could see the Capuchin Monastery Maria Hilf.
People were already making a pilgrimage to this famous place during the Thirty Years’ War. A covered staircase leads up to the church. Many pious pilgrims travel on their knees. Today, the importance of Maria Hilf monastery as a pilgrimage church is low, but is still popular as a wedding venue.
On the right is the Schaiblingsturm, a former customs or toll tower for the Inn from the 15th century.
The New Bishop Residenz came into view. The façade is a mixture of early classicism and late Rokoko. The residence of the Prince-Bishops in Passau was built from 1712 to 1730 in a style of the Viennese late baroque. The master builders were probably the Italian Domenico d’Angeli and the Viennese Antonio Beduzzi. The address is Fritz-Schäffer-Promenade 6, Passau (not to be confused with the Old Bishop Residenz)
The Old Residenz or Alte Residenz is located in the Old Town of Passau, opposite the cathedral. The current building dates mainly from the 15th to 17th centuries.
The oldest surviving part is Romanesque door vestiges and frame of 1180. The prince Bishops are first mentioned in 1188 as owners of the Residenz palace. The extensions of the second half of the 16th century were executed by Master builder Leonard Uttner and Christoforo Canevale.
The Veste Oberhaus castle on the top of the mountain, was built in 1219 under Prince Bishop Ulrich lI. The final expansion of the fortification took place from 1674 to 1723. It served the Passau Prince-Bishops as a fortress and refuge in uprisings of the Passau citizens.
The last major construction works were undertaken under Napoleon in 1809. At the turn of the century, the fortress was a notorious and dreaded prison for military prisoners.
Today, there is a museum and a youth hostel in the Oberhaus fortress. I started the path by foot at the suspension bridge. The view is was worth the climb. Right behind the suspension bridge I saw two Romanesque towers of the monastery church Niedernburg.
The former Benedictine abbey is the most extensive Romanesque building in Passau. It contains the Romanesque original gravestone of the Bavarian princess Gisela, the wife of the Hungarian King Stephen. Today there is a girls’ school in Niedernburg.
In the meantime we have arrived at the top of the mountain. This is where the three rivers come together.
On the right the white-gray Inn, which rises in Graubünden in Switzerland. In the middle, an olive-colored Danube, and on the left the brown llz from the heights of the Bavarian Forest.
This charming location where the three rivers meet has made Passau famous
Stephansdom Cathedral with the biggest Organ in the world
On the right side I could see the Old Town with its numerous secular and ecclesiastical buildings, out of which the parish church of St. Paul stands out in the foreground.
On the highest point of the old town rises the Cathedral Or Dom of St. Stephan. The earliest source of the existence of a St. Stephan in Passau dates back to the time of the Bavarian Duke Hugbert (c. 730). Around 739 AD, with the canonical construction of the diocese of Passau, the existing church was extended, or a new cathedral was built. The appearance of the cathedral in the period from the 8th to the 10th century is unknown.
After the city fire of 1181, the cathedral was renovated in an early Gothic form. The cornerstone of the church was in 1407 and was completed in 1530.
The baroque cathedral, visible today, owes its existence to the catastrophic city fire of 1662. While the original Gothic form can still be seen on the east side of the cathedral, the west front and the domes date back to the Renaissance and early Baroque periods.
The architect of the reconstruction was the Italian Carlo Lurago, and the ornaments on the interior of the church was taken over by the Italian plasterer Giovanni Carlone.
In the cathedral is the largest church organ in the world with about 17,000 pipes. An organ concert should not be missed.